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A specimen on which the description of a new species is
based. Includes Type, Holotype, Allotype, Lectotype, Cotype, Syntype,
Paratype. Possibly a better use of this term is for the one specimen of
each sex which stands as the type. Thus Neotype would become primary and
A specimen considered to deserve a type name but not
included in the original series on which the description of a new species
is based. Includes Plesiotype, Metatype, Topotype, etc.
Strictly construed, this term equals the preferable Holotype (see
|Accepted Types for Essig Specimens|
|Allotype|| The type of the opposite sex from the holotype. If the
original type series contained only one sex,the allotype could be
described by the same or another author when the opposite sex was found,
subsequent to the original description. Many careful workers prefer to use
the term only for a specimen used in the original description or for a
|Cotype|| Any specimen of the author's original series when no holotype
was designated. Syntype is a synonym of Cotype.
|Holotype|| The one specimen,selected by the original author at the time
of describing a new species, standing as the type of the species. May be
of either sex.
|Homoeotype|| A specimen identified by another than the original author
on comparison with the type. A homoeotype identified by an excellent
taxonomist is almost as valuable as a metatype.
|Lectotype|| The holotype selected by the original or a later author from
the series of cotypes (syntypes) when no holotype was originally selected.
This is the "type by subsequent designation".
|Metatype|| A specimen from the original locality (topotype) identified
by the author of the species, after the original description. A metatype
is really as valuable as a paratype, but is not usually so regarded.
|Neotype|| A specimen designated to replace a destroyed or lost holotype
or lectotype. Should be selected from paratypes if possible; otherwise
should be a topotype.
|Paratype|| Any specimen of the original series after the holotype and
allotype have been selected.
|Plesiotype|| A specimen used for any redescription, supplementary
description, or figure published by any author after the original
description of the species.
|Topotype|| Any specimen from the original locality(type locality). The
type locality is the locality where the holotype was taken and is to be
narrowly construed as the exact locality.
are at the tertiary level and should not be included. These include:
- Androtype merely the male type and doesn't tell you if it is the holo- or allotype.
- Lectoparatype is just a specimen of a
syntype series that did not become the lecto- or lectallotype.
- Morphotype is a specimen that represents a subgroup of the species.