Types Used in the Essig Specimen Database
 
 
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Primary Type
A specimen on which the description of a new species is based. Includes Type, Holotype, Allotype, Lectotype, Cotype, Syntype, Paratype. Possibly a better use of this term is for the one specimen of each sex which stands as the type. Thus Neotype would become primary and Paratype secondary.
Secondary Type
A specimen considered to deserve a type name but not included in the original series on which the description of a new species is based. Includes Plesiotype, Metatype, Topotype, etc.
Type
Strictly construed, this term equals the preferable Holotype (see below).


Accepted Types for Essig Specimens
Allotype The type of the opposite sex from the holotype. If the original type series contained only one sex,the allotype could be described by the same or another author when the opposite sex was found, subsequent to the original description. Many careful workers prefer to use the term only for a specimen used in the original description or for a topotype.
Cotype Any specimen of the author's original series when no holotype was designated. Syntype is a synonym of Cotype.
Holotype The one specimen,selected by the original author at the time of describing a new species, standing as the type of the species. May be of either sex.
Homoeotype A specimen identified by another than the original author on comparison with the type. A homoeotype identified by an excellent taxonomist is almost as valuable as a metatype.
Lectotype The holotype selected by the original or a later author from the series of cotypes (syntypes) when no holotype was originally selected. This is the "type by subsequent designation".
Metatype A specimen from the original locality (topotype) identified by the author of the species, after the original description. A metatype is really as valuable as a paratype, but is not usually so regarded.
Neotype A specimen designated to replace a destroyed or lost holotype or lectotype. Should be selected from paratypes if possible; otherwise should be a topotype.
Paratype Any specimen of the original series after the holotype and allotype have been selected.
Plesiotype A specimen used for any redescription, supplementary description, or figure published by any author after the original description of the species.
Topotype Any specimen from the original locality(type locality). The type locality is the locality where the holotype was taken and is to be narrowly construed as the exact locality.

Other Types

Other "types" are at the tertiary level and should not be included. These include:
  • Androtype merely the male type and doesn't tell you if it is the holo- or allotype.
  • Lectoparatype is just a specimen of a syntype series that did not become the lecto- or lectallotype.
  • Morphotype is a specimen that represents a subgroup of the species.
 
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